Nichols and co-workers (2011, p. 447) conducted a study to describe “levels of trait anger, patterns of anger expression, and stress in overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old children.” They also compared the influences of these concepts on the blood pressure of the children. Following the review of literature, the researchers explicitly stated their framework, as follows: “Anger, a feeling varying in intensity from mild displeasure to fury or rage (Spielberger, Reheiser, & Sydeman,1995), can be examined both as the level of trait anger and as the patterns used to express that anger. Trait anger is more stable and reflects the extent of the experience of angry feelings over time (Spielberger et al., 1995). Equally important is the pattern used to express anger, such as anger-in (holding in anger or denying angry feelings), anger-out (expressing anger openly), or anger reflection- control (using a cognitive, problem-solving approach to dealing with anger; (Jacobs, Phelps, & Rhors, 1989).In addition to anger, stress can have an impact on the physiological functioning of children through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system (McEwen, 2007; Ryan Wenger, et al., 2000) and of the sympathetic nervous system (Institute of Medicine, 2001; McEwen, 2007)…. The body responds by (a) increasing the rate and stroke volume of the heart contraction and thereby increasing cardiac output and (b) constricting vessels in the blood reservoirs and thus increasing BP (McEwen, 2007; Severtsen & Copstead, 2000). After carefull reading answer the following: 1. Is the study framework explicitly expressed in the study? 2. What is the name of the theory and theorist used for the framework? 3. What are the concepts in the framework? 4. Is each study variable or concept conceptually defined in the study? 5. Are the operational definitions of the variables consistent with their associated conceptual definitions? 6. Do the researchers clearly identify the relationship statement(s) or proposition(s) from the framework being examined by the study design? 7. Are the study findings linked back to the framework?
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